New Year

Civilizations and Cultures around the world have been celebrating New Year on different days and differently . The most common is the New Year’s of the Gregorian calendar, festivities begin on December 31 (New Year’s Eve), the last day of the year and continue till the early hours of January 1 (New Year’s Day). Common traditions in many countries are attending parties, eating special New Year’s foods, making resolutions for the new year and watching fireworks.

Throughout civilizations around the world, has developed very sophisticated calendars, typically pinning the first day of the year to an agricultural or astronomical event. The first day of the Chinese new year, occurs with the second new moon after the winter solstice. The current era of Hindu New Year is believed to have begun in the year 57 BC. The first day of the Kartik month is considered the new year.

Did you know? In order to realign the Roman calendar with the sun, Julius Caesar had to add 90 extra days to the year 46 B.C. when he introduced his new Julian calendar.

The early Roman calendar consisted of 10 months and 304 days, with each new year beginning at the vernal equinox, it was created by Romulus, the founder of Rome, in the eighth century B.C. A later king, Numa Pompilius, is credited for adding the months of Januarius and Februarius. For Over the centuries, the calendar was out of sync with the sun, and in 46 B.C the emperor Julius Caesar decided to solve the problem by consulting with the most prominent astronomers and mathematicians of that time. He introduced the Julian calendar, which closely resembles to modern Gregorian calendar that most countries around the world use today.

As part of his reform, Caesar declared January 1 as the first day of the year, partly to honor the month’s namesake: Janus, the Roman god of beginnings, whose two faces allowed him to look backwards into the past and forward towards the future. Romans celebrated by offering sacrifices to Janus, exchanging gifts with one another, decorating their homes with laurel branches and attending raucous parties. In medieval Europe, Christian leaders temporarily replaced January 1 as the first of the year with days carrying more religious significance, such as December 25 (the anniversary of Jesus’s birth) and March 25 (the Feast of the Annunciation); Pope Gregory XIII reestablished January 1 as New Year’s Day in 1582.

New Year’s Traditions
In many countries, New Year’s celebrations begin on the evening of December 31—New Year’s Eve—and continue into the first hours of January 1. Revelers often enjoy meals and snacks thought to bestow good luck for the approaching year. In Spain and a number of other other Spanish-speaking countries, people bolt down a dozen grapes-symbolizing their hopes for the months ahead-right before midnight. In many parts of the globe, traditional New Year’s dishes feature legumes, which are thought to resemble coins and herald future financial success; examples include lentils in Italy and black-eyed peas within the southern us. Because pigs represent progress and prosperity in some cultures, pork appears on the New Year’s Eve table in Cuba, Austria, Hungary, Portugal and other countries. Ring-shaped cakes and pastries, an indication that the year has come full circle, round out the feast within the Netherlands, Mexico, Greece et al. In Sweden and Norway, meanwhile, rice pudding with an almond hidden inside is served on New Year’s Eve; it’s said that whoever finds the nut can expect 12 months of fine fortune.

Other customs that are common worldwide include watching fireworks and singing songs to welcome the yr, including the ever-popular “Auld Lang Syne” in many English-speaking countries. The practice of constructing resolutions for the year is assumed to possess first caught on among the traditional Babylonians, who made promises so as to earn the favor of the gods and begin the year off on the correct foot. (They would reportedly vow to pay off debts and return borrowed farm equipment.)